Initially, a large workforce was required to cultivate and harvest the cane.
Mechanization made it possible to cultivate and harvest cane with a smaller workforce.
Camp 1 – Hakalau Upper Camp
Camp 2 – Hakalau Lower Camp
Camp 3 – Wailea Spanish Camp
Camp 4 – Wailea Store Camp/Wailea Mill Camp
Camp 5 – Chin Chuck Genjiro Camp
Camp 6 –Chin Chuck Stable Camp
The Kamaee Camps, located in Umauma, included:
Camp 7 – Kamaee Sugimoto Camp
Camp 8: Kamaee Korean Camp
Camp 9: Kamaee Mauka Camp
Camp 10: When the camp maps were drawn in 1947, there was NO Camp #10. It may have been Hakalau Gulch Camp, destroyed in the 1946 tsunami.
There was a time when these camps were often ethnic-specific. In Pau Hana: Plantation Life and Labor in Hawaii, author Ronald Takaki notes:
While the organization of camps into different nationalities may not have sprung from a consciously designed planter policy of residential segregation, it did support the planters' strategy of dividing and thus controlling their work force. Assigned to separate camps, workers of different nationalities were urged to compete against each other not only in the fields but also in the camps. (Takaki, page 93)
Eventually, the camps were multi-ethnic. The history of the Hakalau Jodo Mission provides some insight into the blending the ethnicities in the camps. Initially, the population around the Mission was almost entirely Japanese and community gatherings were geared towards Japanese culture and Japanese Pure Land Buddhism. Over time, especially during the time of Rev. Mamiya and after World War II, the population became more diverse and the community gatherings increased and expanded to meet community needs. A July 1947 Voice of Hakalau articles states:
It is the aim and desire of those connected with the Mission that this building and its facilities be available to all interested to use, irrespective of race, color, or creed. As a result, up to the present day, convenient use of same has been made by all. We intend to continue offering its facilities for the ultimate good of the community. Comments of T. Morikawa, Chairman of the Fund Drive
In Pau Hana, the "Plantation Pyramid" is described:
At the top of the slope was the big house, the home of the manager; below were the "nicer-looking" homes of the Portuguese, Spanish, and Japanese lunas, then the "identical wooden frame houses of Japanese Camp"; and finally the "more run-down Filipino Camp." Moreover, the organization of the housing hierarchy was "planned and built around its sewage system". (Takaki, page 89, with additional quotes from Milton Murayama's work, All I Asking For is My Body)
Housing improved with the adoption of standard worker house designs developed by the Hawaii Sugar Planters’ Association (HSPA) and distributed industry-wide:
Between 1920 and 1925, millions were spent on repair, remodeling and construction of new housing. Single-family units had at least two bedrooms, with a wash house, baths, and privies nearby. However, only rarely was there running water or sewers, and streets were not paved or lighted. Yet, it was widely acknowledged that such amenities were needed and that the camps must be further improved. By 1925 the industry was pleased with the progress, mildly boasted of it, and labor was appeased, if not content...Another cycle of camp improvements started in 1930. Running water, sewers, attached baths, and larger houses became standard. (Dorrance and Morgan, pp. 130-131)
Age of Camp Dwellings
A great majority of the Hakalau Plantation houses were built between 1906-1929. By the later 1920s, as the result of mechanization, the entire workforce started to decline. Industrywide, the workforce decreased by two-thirds from a total of 48,473 workers in 1925 to 15,935 in 1950. By the 1930s, the plantation did not have enough incentive and/or funds to build more homes and its ability to maintain homes became more difficult.
Three global events or circumstances greatly hampered the ability of the Plantation to invest in housing: the Depression in the 1930s, World War II in the 1940s, and thereafter, competition from other sugar markets worldwide with lower labor costs.
For the Hakalau Kuleana, our responsibility is to care for the land, the people, and the culture. We are guided by cultural values of YESTERDAY: Engage in collective effort. Look out for each other. Honor hard work. Show respect for those who came before us. Aloha and Mālama `Aina. In 2021, Akiko Masuda added two more values to the list: Consistently show up. Whatever has to be done, jump in and do it!